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Sidonius Apollinaris, Letters. Tr. O.M. Dalton (1915) pp. clx-clxxxiii; List of Correspondents



(Asterisks indicate correspondents and the letters addressed to them.)

Abraham. VII. xvii. Saint. Ascetic from Mesopotamia, who, flying from Persian persecution, settled in Gaul, at Clermont, where he founded the Community of St. Cirgues. Died in 477 (June I5th). For a miracle attributed to him on the occasion of a visit made by Sidonius and Victorius, cf. Gregory of Tours, Vitae Patrum, c. iii; also Hist. Franc. II. xxi. The relics of St. Abraham were removed to the church of St. Eutropius in 1804 (Chaix, ii, p. 224).

Aëtius. VII. xii. 3. The famous general, who defeated Attila, and was murdered by Valentinian III. Also mentioned in Carm. v, vii, and ix.

*Agricola. *I. ii. *II. xii. Brother-in-law of Sidonius; son of the Emperor Avitus; brother of Ecdicius and Papianilla. Unknown except for mention in Sidonius.

Agrippinus. VI. ii. An unscrupulous priest.

*Agroecius. *VII. v. Cf. VIL ix. 6. Bishop of Sens. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 564.

Albiso. IX. ii. 1. A priest; or possibly a bishop whose see is unknown. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 75.

Alethius. II. vii. Party in a dispute with Paulus, which Sidonius refers for settlement to Explicius.

Amantius. VII. vii, x; IX. iv. Cf. also VI. viii; VII. ii. A young reader who served as letter-carrier between Sidonius and Graecus. A native of Clermont, he sought to better his fortunes at Marseilles, with the success related in VII. ii. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 108 f. |clxi 

*Ambrosius. *IX. vi. A bishop. Conjectured by Sirmond to be the same as a correspondent of Ruricius. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 98.

Annianus. VIII. xv. Saint. Bishop of Orleans at the time of Attila's invasion. Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. vii.

Anthemius. I. iv, v, vii, ix; II. i; V. xvi. A Byzantine noble, son of Procopius. Had served on the Danube and elsewhere, and married Euphemia, daughter of the Emperor Marcian. Nominated Emperor of the East by Leo, in 467, after the death of Severus. On the occasion of his second consulship in 468 Sidonius addressed a panegyric to him (Carm. ii), which helped to secure for him the Prefecture of Rome. Anthemius was not a strong ruler, though Arvandus was brought to justice in his reign. He gave his daughter Alypia in marriage to Ricimer (I. v. 10), but ultimately quarrelled with his son-in-law, and died in the same year (472). Sidonius is the principal authority for many events in his life. Cf. Carm. i; ii, 197, 199, 205 ff. See Ricimer.

Antiolus, or Antiolius. VIII. xiv. A bishop whose see is unknown. Had lived with Lupus at Lerins, and practised monastic austerities. Also a friend of St. Remi.

*Aper. *IV. xxi; V. xiv. Friend. An Aeduan, possessing influence in Auvergne. See Fronto, Auspicia.

Apollinaris. III. xii; V. ix. Grandfather of Sidonius; Prefect of Gaul in 408 under the 'tyrant' Constantine. Disgusted with the instability of the usurper, he withdrew to his native city of Lyons, where he died. (Fauriel, Hist, de la Gaule méridionale, i, pp. 67, 99.)

*Apollinaris. *III. xiii; V. xi. 3; VIII. vi. 12; IX. i. 5. Son of Sidonius. Cf. Introduction, p. xiv.

*Apollinaris. *IV. vi; *V. iii, vi; II. ix. Cousin (?) of Sidonius, brother of Thaumastus, and apparently also of Simplicius, to whom, jointly with himself, *IV. iv, xii, are addressed. (Cf. also VII. iv. 4.) Endangered by informers at the court of Chilperic, whose machinations were thwarted by Sidonius.

Apollinaris. II. ix. i. Connexion. Host of Sidonius |clxii at the estate of Vorocingus (or Voroangus) in the valley ot the Gard not far from Nîmes. Cf. Carm. xxiv. 53.

*Aprunculus. *IX. x. Bishop of Langres. Suspected of intriguing with the Franks by the Burgundian king Gundobad, he took refuge at Clermont with Sidonius, whom he there succeeded. Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. xxiii; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 185.

*Aquilinus. *V. ix. Schoolfellow and friend. Grandson of Rusticus, the friend of Sidonius' grandfather Apollinaris. His father was Vicarius of a province in Gaul under the father of Sidonius.

*Arbogast. *IV. xvii. Friend. Count, and Governor of Trêves. Descendant of an earlier Arbogast, created count by the younger Valentinian, and famous in the reign of Theodosius. Praised as a good Christian by St. Auspicius, Bishop of Toul. Possibly the same man who became Bishop of Chartres in 473 or 474. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 478, 548; Tillemont, Mem. xvi, pp. 250, 475, &c.; Gallia Christiana, ii. 481.)

Arvandus. I. vii. Prefect of Gaul. The impeachment of this governor in the reign of Anthemius was one of the last acts of authority exercised by the Senate over Gaul. Cf. Introduction, p. xxx.

Asellus, Flavius. I. vii. 4. Comes Sacrarum largitionum in 469. Guard of Arvandus during his trial.

Astyrius (Asterius, Asturius), Turcius Rufius. VIII. vi. 5. Consul 449. Had commanded imperial troops with success in Spain. (Idatius. Ann. 450.)

Athenius. I. xi. Guest at the banquet of Majorian.

*Attalus. *V. xviii. Sirmond conjectures that he is the Count of Autun who was uncle of Gregory of Tours. In his youth he had been sent as hostage to Childebert near Trêves, from whom he escaped in an adventurous manner. (Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. iii. 15.)

Attila. VII. xii; VIII. xv. King of the Huns. Cf. Carm. vii. 327.

*Audax, Castalius Innocentais. *VIII. vii. Friend. Prefect of Rome under Julius Nepos (474).

Auspicia. IV. xxi. Grandmother of Aper (q. v.). |clxiii 

*Auspicius. *VII. xi; IV. xvii. 3. Bishop of Toul. He enjoyed a high reputation for learning and piety. See Hist. litt, de la France, ii, p. 478; Chaix, ii, p. 86.

Auxanius. VII. xvii. Succeeded St. Abraham as abbot of the monastery of St. Cirgues, near Clermont.

Auxanius. I. vii. 6. A Roman who advised Arvandus on the occasion of his impeachment.

Avienus, Gennadius. I. ix. Of the family of the Corvini. An influential senator at Rome during the period ot Sidonius' visit in the reign of Anthemius. He had been chosen by the Senate in 452 to accompany Pope Leo when he went out to meet Attila. (Prosper of Aquitaine, Chron. An. 452.) Colleague of Valentinian in his seventh consulate in 450.

*Avitus. *III. i. Kinsman (cousin?) of Sidonius, and ot about his age. He possessed influence with the Visigoths, which he appears to have used with some effect at Sidonius' request in or about the year 474. Cf. Carm. xxiv. 75, where his estate of Cottion (Cottium) is mentioned, and Chaix, ii, p. 147.

Basilius, Caecina. I. ix. 2. Consul, 463. An influential senator at Rome, of the Decian family, who secured for Sidonius the audierce at which he recited his Panegyric to Anthemius, preparatory to his nomination as Prefect of the city. Basilius was at a later time treated with consideration by Odovakar, who summoned him to his Court. Cf, Chaix, ii, p. 333.

*Basilius. *VII. vi. Bishop of Aix. One of the four bishops who were nominated to treat with Euric (see Graecus, Faustus, Leontius). Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. xxv.

Bigerrus. I. xi. 3. Of Arles. Associated with Paeonius in the episode of the anonymous satire.

*Burgundio. *IX. xiv. A young man of senatorial family in Clermont, devoted to rhetoric and poetry.

Caelestius. IX.x. i. Friend. 'Fraternoster,' Probably a cleric.

*Calminius. *V. xii. Friend. Son of the senator Eucherius. Compelled by Euric to fight against Auvergne, his native country. Cf. Chaix, ii, pp. 292-3. |clxiv 

Camillas. I. xi. Of Narbonne. Nephew of Magnus (q.v.). Cf. Carm. ix, 1. 8.

*Campanianus. *I. x. Friend.

*Candidianus. *I. viii. Friend. Native of Cesena, settled in Ravenna.

Catullinus. I. xi. 3, 4. Friend and comrade of Sidonius at the time of the Coniuratio Marcell[in]iana. Cf. Carm. xii.

*Censorius. *VI. x. Bishop of Auxerre. (Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 441.)

*Chariobaudus. *VII. xvi. An abbot.

Chilperic. V. vi. 2, vii. i. One of the four kings ('tetrarchs') of the Burgundians. Father of Clotilda, queen of Clovis. Bore the title of Magister militum.

Claudianus, see Mamertus, Claudianus.

Consentais. IX. xv. i (v. 22 of the poem). Distinguished citizen of Narbonne. Owner of the villa Octaviana between Narbonne and Béziers. A man of great intellectual gifts. Cf. Carm. xxiii. 33, 98, 169, 177.

*Consentius. *VIII. iv; IX. xv. 1 (v. 22 of the poem). Friend. Son of the preceding. Possessed a great reputation as poet in Greek and Latin (IX. xv). Succeeded to the Villa Octaviana. In earlier life entered the Imperial service, and was entrusted by Valentinian III with missions to Constantinople. Prefect of the Palace under Avitus. (Carm. xxiii, 2, 98, 176.) Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 653.

Constans. IV. xii. A lector, or anagnôstes.

Constantinus (III). V. ix. i. 'The tyrant' (407-411). A soldier, proclaimed emperor in Britain. Established his power in Gaul, and was recognized by Honorius. But Gerontius (q. v.), his general in Spain, revolted; and having slain his son Constans at Vienne, besieged the tyrant in Arles. The emperor, profiting by this disunion, sent against him his general Constantius, to whom, after a siege of four months, he surrendered. He was murdered near Mantua by order of Honorius, while being taken to Ravenna under a safe-conduct (411). Cf. Freeman, English Historical Review, i, 1886, pp. 53ff.

*Constantius. *I.i; *III.ii; *VII. xviii; *VIII. xvi; II. x,3; |clxv IX. xvi. 1. Priest. Of a noble family in Lyons; reputed for eloquence, judgement, and love of letters. The publication of Sidonius' Letters was suggested by him, and the first Letter dedicates the book to him. The eighth book, collected at the request of Petronius, was to be issued under his auspices. Constantius wrote little himself, his principal work being a Life of St. Germain of Auxerre, composed at the request of Patiens. His reputation as a poet led Patiens to ask of him a metrical inscription for his great church at Lyons (II. x). The character of Constantius was a noble one, and his influence wide. When the capital of Auvergne was laid desolate by the Visigothic siege, Sidonius sent for him, and his arrival had the most salutary effect upon the desperate population (III. ii). He is supposed to have died at an advanced age about 488. Cf. Hist. litt, de la France, ii; Chaix, ii, p. 206.

Crocus. VII. vi. 9. Bishop. Considered by Sirmond to have occupied the see of Nîmes; but the only recorded Crocus lived in the seventh century. (Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, i, p. 313.)

Dardanus. V. ix. i. Prefect of Gaul, temp. Honorius, 409-10. After his prefecture he appears to have embraced Christianity. Letters were addressed to him by Jerome and Augustine. For an inscription relating to him, cf. note, 60. 4, p. 237.

*Desideratus. *II. viii. Friend: perhaps an ancestor of St. Desideratus, Bishop of Clermont after St. Avitus. His poetical judgement was highly valued in Auvergne, and Severianus considered it an advantage to publish a treatise on rhetoric under his auspices. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 576.)

*Domitius. *II. ii. Friend. Perhaps born at Lyons, but teaching as a grammarian in the schools of Ameria. Mentioned in Carm. xxiv. 10-16 as a severe critic, and compared to the censorious person who had only laughed once in his life.

*Domnicius. *IV. xx; V. xvii. 6. Friend.

*Domnulus. *IV. xxv; IX. xiii. 4, xv. i. Friend; living at Arles. Served as Quaestor. Poet and philosopher, with an interest in theology, and a Churchman. One of the four poets whom Majorian invited during his sojourn in Gaul. |clxvi Probably still living, as an old man, in 483 or 484. Cf. Carm. xiv; Hist. litt, de la France, ii, p. 507.

*Donidius. *II. ix; III. v; VI. v. Friend. Vir spectabilis. Living on his ancestral estate at Eborolacum (Ebreuil, near Gannat), in the valley of the Sioule, part of which he lost during the disturbances of 474.

*Ecdicius. *II. i; *III. iii; II. ii. 15; V. xvi. 1. Son of the emperor Avitus; brother of Papianilla and brother-in-law of Sidonius. Patrician. An athlete and patriot, who became the champion of his countrymen during the last resistance of Auvergne to Euric's aggression. Ecdicius continued the policy of his father Avitus in conciliating the barbaric princes, and his diplomacy confirmed the Burgundians in their support of the Gallo-Romans against Euric; but he was also a defender of the purity of the Latin language against encroaching barbarism. During the misery which followed Euric's invasion, Ecdicius rivalled Patiens in the generosity with which he relieved the starving. Some consider that he is the Isicius who succeeded Mamertus as Bishop of Vienne (Chaix, ii, p. 209). It is also thought that he is the Decius whom Jornandes describes as leaving his country in disgust after its surrender to the Goths (Get. xlv).

*Elaphius. *IV. xv. Friend. Resident in Rodez, where he built a baptistery. Perhaps subsequently a bishop. (Ruricius, Ep. II. vii; Gallia Christiana, iii, p. 593; Tillemont, Mem. xvi, p. 260.)

*Eleutherius. *VI. xi. Bishop. (Tillemont, Mem. xvi, p. 232.)

Eminentius. IV. xvii. 1. Friend of Arbogast.

Epiphanius. V. xvii. 10. Scriba or Secretary, either of Filimatius or Sidonius.

*Eripbius. *V. xvii. Friend; of Lyons. Son-in-law of Filimatius.

Eucherius. IV. iii. 7. St. Eucherius, Bishop of Lyons, previously monk at Lerins, D. 449. Author of various treatises and homilies. Cf. Carm. xvi, 1. 115; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 275; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 163.

*Eucherius. *III. via; VII. ix. 18. Friend. Vir illustris. |clxvii A man of integrity, for whom the decaying Roman empire found no important post. Sirmond conjectures him to be the same Eucherius who, under Count Victorius, when Euric had seized Auvergne, was falsely accused, and put to death. (Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. xx; Tillemont, Mem. xvi, p. 303.)

*Euphronius. *VII. viii; *IX. ii; IV. xxv. 2. Bishop of Autun. His visit to Châlon with Patiens, described in IV. xxv, must have taken place about 470, when he was advanced in years. Of his writings, there remains only a letter written jointly with Lupus of Troyes to the Bishop of Angers on questions of ecclesiastical discipline. He died at a great age about 476. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 465; Chaix, ii, p. 74; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 117.)

Euric (Eoricus, Evarix). VII. vi. 4; VIII. iii, ix. 5. Cf. I. vii. 5; II. i. 3; IV. viii. 1; VIII. ix. 1. King of the Visigoths. Murderer and successor of his brother Theodoric II. A bigoted Arian, conqueror, and energetic ruler, who extended his territory from Septimania, until by the conquest of Auvergne and Berry, and the cession by Odovakar of the last territory preserved to Rome in Provence, it embraced the whole of southern France outside the Burgundian dominions. Euric probably died in 484-5 in the nineteenth year of his reign (Jornandes, Getica, c. lvii), though Isidore of Seville and Gregory of Tours give different dates. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 330.

Eusebius. IV. i. 3. Teacher of philosophy at Lyons, where he taught Sidonius and many of his friends.

Eustachius. VII. ii. 4, 9. Bishop of Marseilles.

Eutropia. VI. ii. i, 4. A pious widow; possibly the same celebrated in the Roman martyrology among sainted widows on September 15. (Tillemont, Mem. xvi, 227.)

*Eutropius. *VI. vi. Bishop of Orange. See Acta Sanctorum (May 27), p. 699; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 473; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, i, p. 265.

*Eutropius. *I. vi; *III. vi. Lifelong friend; member of a noble family, distinguished for its official honours. Became Prefect of Gaul. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 19. |clxviii 

Evanthius. V. xiii. i. An official of public works under Seronatus.

*Evodius. *IV. viii. Petitioner at the court of Euric, to whose queen, Ragnahild, he presented a silver cup.

*Explicius. *II. vii. A jurisconsult, to whom Sidonius refers a dispute which his own efforts had failed to settle.

Faustmus. IV. iv. I; vi. 1. Friend of Sidonius from his youth. Entered the Church, and perhaps became the successor of Hermentarius at Velay. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii. p. 551 ; cf. Chaix, ii, pp. 116, 118.)

Faustus. Born in Britain. Abbot of Lerins (433-4) for twenty-seven years, where he established a school. Subsequently Bishop of Riez (462). Preserved the ascetic habits of monastic life (IX. iii). Celebrated for his learning and eloquence. One of the four bishops nominated to treat with Euric (see Leontius, Graecus, Basilius). Preached at the dedication of Patiens' new church at Lyons (IX. iii). Published a famous letter maintaining the materiality of the soul (IV. iii; Guizot, Hist. de la Civ. en France, v. 165 f.), wrote against the Arians, for which he was exiled by Euric to the district of Limoges, where he enjoyed the intercourse of Ruricius; liberated in 484, and died at an advanced age (c. 490). His writings, which give evidence of a modified Pelagianism, were regarded as heretical after his death, but were not condemned in his lifetime. Cf. Carm. xvi. See Hist. litt. de la France, ii. 587; Mon. Germ. Historica, viii (Auctorum Antiquiss. pp. liv ff.); Chaix, i, pp. 248-9; ii, p. 294; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, i, p. 284.

Felix, see Magnus Felix.

Ferreolus. VII. i. 7. Martyr: interred near Vienne.

Ferreolus, see Tonantius Ferreolus.

Filimatia (Philimatia). II. viii. Wife of Eriphius and daughter of Filimatius (?).

*Filimatius (Philimatius, Philomathius). *I. iii; V. xvii. 10. Friend; of Lyons. Father-in-law of Eriphius; father of Filimatia (?); member of the Prefect's council. A man of vivacious temperament and poetical tastes. Cf. Chaix, ii, pp. 169, 297. |clxix 

*Firminus. *IX. i, xvi. Friend. A native of Arles. Incited Sidonius to publish the ninth book of the Letters. Ennodius of Pavia praises his learning and literary style (Ep. I. viii). He was of a generous character, and assisted St. Caesarius in a time of trouble. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 684.

*Florentinus. *IV. xix. Friend.

*Fonteius. *VI. vii; *VII. iv. Bishop of Vaison from about A.D. 450. Sidonius praises his charming character. He seems to have exerted over the Burgundian princes an influence which enabled him to be of great service to the Gallo-Romans of his diocese. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 106; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, i, p. 262.

*Fortunalis. *VIII. v. Friend. Lived in Spain (Tarra-gona), and witnessed the conquest of Iberia by the Visigoths in 478-80.

Fronto. IV. xxi. Grandfather of Aper (q. v.). Possibly the Count twice sent as ambassador to the Suevi in Spain, first by Valentinian, then by Avitus.

Gallicinus. VIII. xi. 3 (v. 39 of the poem). Bishop.

Gallus. VI. ix. A man living in the diocese of Troyes, whom Sidonius persuaded to return to his. wife. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 80.

*Gaudentius. *I. iv; I. iii. 2; III. xii. 4. Friend. Of tribunician rank. Became Vicarius of the Seven Provinces. Called venerabilis in III. xii. 4.

*Gelasius. *IX. xv; IX. xvi. i. Friend.

Germanicus. IV. xiii. i. Resident at or near Chanteile in the Bourbonnais, and a neighbour of Vectius. Described by Sidonius as a juvenile sexagenarian. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 242.

Germanus. VIII. xv. 1. Bishop of Auxerre.

Gerontius. V. ix. I. Commander in Spain under the 'tyrant' Constantine (q. v.), but rose against Constans, the tyrant's son, whom he drove from Spain into Gaul, and slew at Vienne. He then besieged Constantine in Arles, but on the arrival of Honorius' general Constantius, was abandoned by his men, and flying to Spain, there perished (411). Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. ix.

Gozolas. III. iv. i; IV. v. i. A Jew. |clxx 

*Graecus. *VI. viii; *VII. ii, vii, xi; *IX. iv; VII. vi. 10. Bishop of Marseilles. Charged by Julius Nepos to negotiate with Euric, together with Leontius of Arles, Basilius of Aix, and Faustus of Riez. Cf. Introduction, p. xlii.

Gratianensis. I. xi. 10,13. Vir illustris. Guest at the banquet of Majorian.

Heliodorus. IV. x. i. Mentioned as filius meus, but probably no relation of Sidonius.

*Herenius (Heronius). *I. v, ix. Friend; of Lyons. A cultivated man, interested in geographical and historical questions, and a poet. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 437.)

*Hesperius. *II. x; IV. xxii. 1. Friend. Man of letters; also intimate with Leo.

Himerius. VII. xiii. 1. A priest, or possibly bishop. Son of Sulpicius, and pupil of Lupus at Troyes. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 490.)

*Hypatius. *III. v. Friend. A person with influence in the neighbourhood of Ébreuil. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 149.

*Industrius. *IV. ix. Friend.

Injuriosus. IX. x. i. A dependant (clerk?) who left Sidonius for Aprunculus, bishop of Langres.

Innocentius. VI. ix. 3. A vir spectabilis.

Johannes, II. v. i. A friend involved in legal difficulties; introduced by Sidonius to the jurisconsult Petronius.

Johannes. IV. xxv. 3. Bishop of Châlon, consecrated by Patiens and Euphronius. Cf. Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 192.

* Johannes. *VIII. ii. Friend. Grammarian, teaching in Aquitaine under Visigothic rule.

Jovinus. V. ix. 'Tyrant.' Assumed the purple while Constantine was being besieged by Constantius at Arles (411). Defeated and slain at Narbonne in 412 by Ataulf the Visigoth, acting on behalf of Honorius. Cf. Carm. XXIII. i. 173.

Julianus. IX. v. Bishop. Perhaps of some see in Gallia Narbonensis. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 149.

Julius Nepos. V. xvi. Cf. V. vi. 2, vii. I; VIII. vii. 4. Emperor, A. D. 474-5, in whose reign Auvergne was lost to the empire. Cf. Introduction, p. xliii. |clxxi 

*Justinus. *V. xxi. Friend. Brother of Sacerdos. Their brotherly affection was celebrated. Cf. Carm. xxiv. 26 ff.

Justus. V. xvii. 3. Saint. Bishop of Lyons, d. c. 390. The church erected by Patiens on the site of the old church of the Maccabees at Lyons was known by his name.

Justus. II. xii. 3. A doctor attending Severiana.

*Lampridius. *VIII. ix.; VIII. xi. 3; IX. xiii. 2, 4. Friend. Poet and orator of Bordeaux. A man of great versatility, whom Fertig calls 'the Goethe of his age'. He ingratiated himself with Euric, and was probably thus enabled to assist Sidonius in regaining his liberty. Murdered by his household slaves. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 494.

*Leo. *IV. xxii; *VIII. iii; IX. xiii. 2, xv. i. Minister of Euric. A native of Narbonne and descendant of the orator Fronto, whose talent he inherited. He also bore a high reputation as poet (Rex Castalii Chori, IX. xiii), philosopher, orator, and jurist: Appius Claudius himself would be silent when Leo expounded the law of the Twelve Tables (Carm. xxiii. 446). Though a Catholic, he was selected by Euric as minister, in which capacity he doubtless made easier the lot of many of his co-religionists. While Sidonius was in banishment Leo encouraged him to occupy himself with the life of Apollonius of Tyana; and the intercession of the powerful minister must have contributed to his release. Leo was still living about 483. Cf. Carm. ix. 314, XIV. xxiii. 446 ff.; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 627 ff.

*Leontius. *VI. iii. Bishop of Arles, and friend of Pope Hilary, who confirmed the privileges of his see as the first in Gaul. Friend of Faustus, Felix, and Ruricius (cf. Ruricius, Ep. I. xv). Arranged terms of peace with Euric in company with Basilius, Graecus, and Faustus. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 189.

Leontius, see Pontius Leontius.

Licinianus. III. vii. 2; V. xvi. i. Quaestor; envoy from Julius Nepos to Gaul at the time of Euric's invasion of Auvergne. |clxxii 

Livia. VIII. xi. 3 (1. 34 of the poem). Mother of Pontius Leontius (q. v.).

*Lucontius (Lucentius). *IV. xviii. Friend.

*Lupus, St., d. 479. *VI. i, iv, ix; *VIII. xi; *IX. xi; IV. xvii. 3; VII. xiii. i; VIII. xiv. 2, xv. i. Saint. Born at Toul. Bishop of Troyes. In 451 he persuaded Attila to spare the city. After separating from his wife Pimeniola, sister of St. Hilarius, resided at Lerins first as a monk under Honoratus, subsequently as abbot. (Cf. Carm. xvi. 11.) Summoned to the see of Troyes in 426 or 427. Opponent of Pelagianism. On Sidonius' election to Clermont, Lupus wrote him a still extant letter of congratulation, the terms of which seem to imply a previous intimacy in spite of their disparity in age. Lupus was no less eminent for his learning than for the austerity of his life. (IV. xvii.) Bollandists, Acta Sanctorum, July 29; Chaix, i, p. 442: Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 486 ff.; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 449.

*Lupus. *VIII. xi. Friend. Rhetor, residing at Périgueux or Agen, the former being his native city. A man of literary taste with a predilection for science. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 583.

Magnus. I. xi. 10. Senator of Narbonne. Consul in 460. Prefect of Gaul in 469. Father of Probus and Magnus Felix, both of whom were friends of Sidonius. Uncle of Camillus. A great personage in Gaul, where he was widely respected for his integrity and practical wisdom. Cf. Garni. XIV. xxiii. 455; xxiv. 90.

*Magnus Felix. *II. iii; *III. iv, vii; *IV. v, x. Friend. Son of Magnus and brother of Probus. 'Patrician.' Lived at Narbonne. Schoolfellow of Sidonius, to whom the latter dedicated his poems. Cf. Carm. ix. 330, xxiv. 91; Chaix, ii, p. 294.

Majorianus, Julius Valerius. I. xi. 2; IX. xiii. 4. Roman Emperor. Distinguished soldier and comrade of Aëtius and Ricimer. Raised to the throne by the latter in 457. Pardoned Sidonius for his share in the insurrection of Lyons after the deposition of Avitus, and during his visit to |clxxiii Gaul treated him with distinction. Majorian was a wise ruler, who sought to stem the progress of imperial decay; he defeated the Vandals in Italy, but his preparations for an attack upon them in Africa were thwarted by the burning of his fleet, and, having incurred the enmity of Ricimer, he was assassinated by his own troops at Tortona in 461. The Panegyric on Majorian is Carm. v. Cf. Introduction, p. xxi. Mamertus. *VII. i; IV. xi. 6; V. xiv. 2; Saint. Bishop of Vienne. Brother of Claudianus Mamertus. Introduced, at a time of public disaster, the Rogations, which were afterwards adopted by Sidonius at Clermont. Incurred the displeasure of Pope Hilary in connexion with the bishopric of Die. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 112; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, i, p. 205.

*Mamertus, Claudianus. *IV. iii; IV. xi. i; V. ii. i. Writer of IV. ii. Priest. Brother of St. Mamertus, bishop of Vienne. Learned in philosophy, and author of a well-known treatise, De Natura Animae, in three books, a reply to a letter of Faustus, Bishop of Riez (q. v. ), maintaining the material nature of the soul. Friend of Salvian, who dedicated to him his work on Ecclesiastes. Cf. Guizot, Hist. de la Civ. en France, i, pp. 166 ff.; Chaix, i, p. 361.

Marcellinus. II. xiii. i. A jurisconsult of Narbonne, described in Carm. xxiii, 1. 465, as of a frank outspoken character, but amiable and a man of many friends, among whom was Serranus (q. v.).

Marcellinus. I. xi. Distinguished soldier. Served under Aëtius, after whose death he withdrew to Dalmatia and established a practically independent state. On the death of Avitus the diadem was apparently offered him by a party in Gaul, to which Sidonius belonged, and which was subdued by Majorian. Cf. Introduction, p. xx.

*Maurusius. *II. xiv. Landed proprietor, and friend.

Maximus. VIII. xiv. 2. Abbot of Lerins, and afterwards Bishop of Riez. Cf. Carm. xvi, 11. 112, 128.

Maximus. IV. xxiv. Friend. Formerly in the Palatine service, subsequently a cleric, possibly bishop, living near Toulouse. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 235. |clxxiv 

*Megethius. *VII. iii. Bishop, possibly of Belley. (Sirmond.)

Megethius. VIII. xiv. 8. Cleric. Acting as messenger between Principius and Sidonius. Cf. IX. viii. i.

Menstruanus. II. vi. i. Friend of Sidonius and Pegasius.

Modaharius. VII. vi. 2. A Visigothic Arian confuted by Basilius.

*Montius. *I. xi. Friend.

Namatius. *VIII. vi. Friend. 'Admiral' of Euric on the West Coast. He had a villa at Saintes, and apparently an estate in Oléron. Studied architecture. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 576.)

Nicetius, Flavius. VIII. vi. 2. Cf. III. i. 3; VIII. vi. 8. Advocate of Lyons. Chosen by common consent to deliver a panegyric at the inauguration of the Consul Astyrius at Arles in 449. An admirer of Sidonius' writings. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 500.)

*Nunechius. *VIII. xiii. Bishop of Nantes. He was present at the Council of Vannes in 465.

*Nymphidius. *V. ii. Friend. Grandfather of Polemius. Cf. Carm. xv. 200.

Optantius. II. iv. 2, 3. Vir clarissimus. The deceased father of a girl demanded in marriage by Proiectus, to whom Sidonius gives a letter of introduction.

*Oresius. *IX. xii. Friend; living in Spain.

Paeonius. I. xi. A parvenu and ambitious demagogue. During the interregnum, after the death of Avitus, he usurped the position of Prefect of Gaul. In this capacity he made himself essential to the young nobles who participated in the 'conspiracy of Marcellinus'. After his term of office he was given senatorial rank, but did not succeed, like Sidonius, in conciliating the favour of Majorian; to this cause perhaps was due the enmity which he displayed in the affair of the anonymous satire. Cf. Introduction, p. xxii.

*Pannychius. *V. xiii; VII. ix. 18. Friend. Vir illustris. Living at Bourges,

* Papianilla. *V. xvi. Cf. II. ii. 3, xii. 2; V. xvi. 3; |clxxv Carm. xviii. 1. Wife. Daughter of Avitus and sister of Ecdicius (q. v.). Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. xxi, and Introduction, p. xiii.

*Pastor. *V. xx. Friend.

Pateminus. IV. xvi. r. Bearer of a letter from Ruricius.

*Patiens. *VI. xii.; II. x. 2; IV. xxv. i, 3, 5. Cf. III. xii. 3. Saint. Archbishop of Lyons from before 470. A man of great wealth, which he employed in the building and restoration of churches and in the relief of the needy in times of national distress. (Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. xxiv.) Sidonius is our chief authority for Patiens. Cf. Acta Sanctorum, September 11; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 54; Chaix, ii, p. 304; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 163.

Paulus. IV. xxv. i. Bishop of Châlon.

Paulus. I. ix. i. Of prefectorian rank. Host of Sidonius at Rome.

Paulus. II. vii. Party to a dispute with Alethius, which Sidonius refers for settlement to Explicius.

*Pegasius. *I. vi. Friend.

*Perpetuus. *VII. ix.; IV. xviii. 4, 5, &c. Bishop of Tours. Soon after his accession he convened a council at Tours to regulate ecclesiastical discipline and remedy abuse; four years later he summoned another at Vannes. His devotion to the memory of St. Martin led him to erect the basilica described by Sidonius in place of the earlier church. He was an intimate friend of Euphronius, whom he survived. Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. xiv; X. xxxi; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 619 ff.; Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 300.

*Petreius. *IV. xi. Friend. Nephew of Claudianus Mamertus.

*Petronius. *II. v; *V. i; *VIII. i; I. vii. 4; VIII. xvi. i. Eminent jurisconsult of Arles and lover of letters. Associated with Tonantius Ferreolus in the impeachment of Arvandus. Persuaded Sidonius to publish the eighth book of the Letters. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 581 ff. |clxxvi 

Petrus. IX. xiii. 4; xv. i. Born in North Italy. Secretary (magister epistolarum) of Majorian. Sidonius, in the Prologue to the Panegyric in honour of that Emperor, describes Petrus as his Maecenas; and it was probably owing to the intercession of this friend that he made his peace after the rebellion at Lyons. (Carm. v. 569-71; ix. 305.) Petrus had also gifts of eloquence and style, and was no mean poet. After the assassination of Majorian he devoted himself to literary interests, and is said to have died in 473 or 474. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 439.)

Petrus. VIL xi. 2. Of tribunician rank.

*Philagrius (Filagrius). *VII. xiv. Cf. II. iii. 1. Known to Sidonius by reputation only as a man of culture and erudition. Connected with the families of Avitus and Magnus Felix. Cf. Carm. vii. 156, xxiv. 93; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 41, 576.

*Placidus. *III. xiv. Friend; of Grenoble. A man of literary tastes, who appreciated the writings of Sidonius.

*Polemius. *IV. xiv. Friend. Descendant of Tacitus. Prefect of Gaul. Of philosophical tastes, and a student of Plato. Cf. Carm. xiv (an epithalamium for the marriage of Polemius and Araneola). Cf. also Chaix, i, p. 347; ii. 254; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 514 ff.

Pontius Leontius. VIII. xi. 3; xii. 5. Of Bordeaux, in the neighbourhood of which was situated his fine villa, Burgus. A personage of great importance in Aquitaine (Facile primus Aquitanorum). Sidonius has celebrated the elegance and hospitality of Burgus in his twenty-second poem. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 409.

Pontius Paulinus. VIII. xii. 5. Son of Pontius Leontius. Friend. Native of Aquitaine. A poet, chiefly devoting himself to religious subjects. Cf. Carm. ix. 304; Tillemont, Mémoires, xvi, p. 404; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 470.

*Potentinus. *V. xi. Friend. Regarded by Sidonius as the model for his young son Apollinaris.

*Pragmatius. *VI. ii. Bishop. Probably not Pragmatius of Antun. Cf. Chaix, ii, p. 97. |clxxvii 

Pragmatius. V. x. I, 2. A man of eloquence and personal charm, adopted as son-in-law by Priscus Valerianus. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 499, 580.

*Principius. *VIII. xiv; *IX. viii. Bishop of Soissons. Elder brother of St. Remi. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 668.

*Probus. *IV. i. Friend from schooldays. Husband of Eulalia, cousin of Sidonius; elder brother of Magnus Felix (q. v.) and son of Magnus. A man of literary taste and precocious ability. Cf. Carm. ix. 329-34; xxiv. 95-8; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 649.

*Proculus. *IV. xxiii; IX. xv. Friend. Of Ligurian origin; poet and man of letters, (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 538.)

Proculus. IX. ii. 1. A deacon.

Proiectus. II. iv. 1. Vir clarissimus. Betrothed to the daughter of Optantius, and introduced by Sidonius to his friend Sagittarius (or Syagrius).

Promotus. VIII. xiii. 3. A Jew.

*Prosper. *VIII. xv. Bishop of Orleans. Only known from this letter and from his mention by Bede. Invited Sidonius, at the time of his exile, to write a history of Attila's attack on Orleans. Cf. Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux, ii, p. 456.

Prudens. VI. iv. 2. Witness to the sale of a slave.

*Pudens. *V. xix. Friend.

Ragnahild. IV. viii. 5. Queen of Euric. Her name is only known through Sidonius.

*Remigius (Remi). *IX. vii. Cf. VIII. xiv. 'Apostle of the Franks.' Saint. Bishop of Reims. Born c. 458, in or near Laon; son of Count Emilius and Celinia, and brother of Principius. Elected at an early age to the see of Reims by popular compulsion (Raptus potius quam electus—Hincmar). Baptized Clovis in 496, using on this occasion the famous words bidding the King adore what he had burned and burn what he had adored. Author of Addresses (Declamationes), highly praised by Sidonius, but no longer extant. Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, iii, p. 156; Chaix, ii, p. 88.

Ricimer. I. v. 10; ix. i. The famous 'king-maker', |clxxviii who raised emperors to the throne (Majorian, Severus) or deposed them (Avitus), but never assumed the diadem himself. He was the son of a Suevic father and a Gothic mother (cf. Carm. ii. 361 ff.), and comrade of Majorian (Carm. v. 267). He married the daughter of Anthemius (I. v), but quarrelled with that Emperor, and a war ensuing, died shortly after his antagonist. Cf. Introduction, p. xix.

Riochatus. IX. ix. A priest (or bishop) and monk (antistes ac monachus), who visited Clermont, bearing with him works by Faustus of Riez.

*Riothamus. *III. ix. Commander of the Bretons engaged to join the Empire in resisting the advance of the Visigoths. He engaged Euric before Roman support could reach him and was defeated by that king at Bourg-de-Déols on the Indre, whereupon he took refuge with the Burgundians. Cf. Introduction, p. xxxvi.

Roscia. V. xvi. 5. Daughter of Sidonius and Papianilla. Cf. Introduction, p. xiv.

*Ruricius. *IV. xvi; *V. xv; *VIII. x. Friend. Member of a patrician family connected with the Gens Anicia. Married, before 470, Iberia, daughter of the Arvernian Ommatius, Sidonius writing their epithalamium (Carm. xi). After some years, he renounced the world for a life of piety. In 484 he became Bishop of Limoges. Author of two books of Letters, in which an imitation of Sidonius is sometimes apparent. These mostly date from the time previous to his episcopate, and though exemplary in their piety, and showing an admirable character, contain little of interest for the historian. Of them Bk. I. ix, xvi are addressed to Sidonius. (Hist. litt. de la France, iii, pp. 49-56.) See also Krusch, Mon. Germ. Historica, viii (Auctorum Antiquissimorum, pp. lxiiff.).

*Rusticus, Decimus. V. ix. 1. Succeeded his friend Apollinaris as Prefect of Gaul at the time of the tyrant Constantine (409). Captured and slain in Auvergne by the generals of Honorius a few years later. Grandfather of Aquilinus. Cf. Gregory of Tours, Hist. Franc. II. c. ix.

Rusticus. V. ix. 2. Son of the preceding. Tribune and |clxxix notary under Honorius, with the father of Sidonius, and subsequently a vicarius.

Rusticus. V. ix. 4. Son of Aquilinus (?).

*Rusticus (Rusticius). *II. xi; VIII. xi. 3 (v. 36 of the poem). Friend; living near Bordeaux. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 428.)

*Sacerdos. *V. xxi. Friend. Brother of Justinus (q.v). Cf. Carm. xxiv. 27.

*Sagittarius (?). *II. iv. Friend. The MS. C gives the name of the recipient of this letter as Syagrius.

*Salonius. * VII. xv. Friend; living at Vienne. Some have considered him to be the son of St. Eucherius of the same name, who was a bishop when Sidonius was quite young, but this view is not universally accepted. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 433; Tillemont, Mémoires, xvi, p. 207; Sirmond, note to VII. xv.)

*Sapaudus. *V. x. Friend. Rhetor of Vienne. For his studies he received the advice of Claudianus Mamertus, and sought to inspire himself from the earlier Roman writers. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 498.)

*Secundinus. *V. viii; II. x. 3; V. viii. i. Poet of Lyons. Associated with Constantius and Sidonius in writing metrical inscriptions for the church erected by Patiens. Wrote a satire exposing the merciless cruelty of Gundobad, one of the Burgundian 'tetrarchs', to his brothers and their families. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 502.)

*Secundus. *II. xii. Nephew of Sidonius, or grandson of one of his uncles (Mommsen, Praefatio, p. xlvii).

Seronatus. II. i. i; V. xiii. i, 4; VII. vii. 2. Perhaps Governor of Aquitanica Prima (cf. Introduction, p. xxxviii). He was guilty of more open treason and even worse oppression than his predecessor. The people of Auvergne brought him to justice, and he received the penalty of death. Cf. Tillemont, Hist, des Empereurs, vi, p. 352; Chaix, i, p. 377.

*Serranus. *II. xiii. Friend; living at Narbonne. Adherent of the Emperor Petronius Maximus. Friend of Marcellinus.

Severiana. II. xii. Daughter (?) of Sidonius. Cf. Introduction, p. xiv. |clxxx 

Severianus. IX. xiii. 4; xv. i. A poet of repute in Gaul, considered to rank with Domnulus, Lampridius and Sidonius. In his prose work he is compared by the latter to Quintilian. Cf. Carm. ix. 312; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 509.

Severinus. I. xi. 10, 16. Consul of the year 461. Guest at the banquet of Majorian.

Sigismer. IV. xx. A young Frankish (?) prince. Cf. Introduction, p. xciii.

Simplicius. VII. vi. 9. A bishop.

Simplicius. VII. viii. 2, 3; ix. 16, 25. Son of Eulogius and son-in-law of Palladius, both bishops of Bourges. Nominated by Sidonius to the same see. (Chaix, ii, p. 20.)

*Simplicius. *V. iv; III. xi; IV. iv, vii, xii; VII. iv. Perhaps brother of Apollinaris (q. v.).

*Sulpicius. *VII. xiii. Friend.

Syagrius, Flavius Afranius (I). I. vii. 4; V. xvii. 4. Cf. V. v. i; VIII. viii. 3. Of Lyons. General of Valentinian; subsequently Praefectus Praetorio in Gauland consul in 382. Buried at Lyons, where his monument is mentioned by Sidonius (as above). His daughter Papianilla was the mother of Tonantius Ferreolus (q.v.).

*Syagrius, *V. v; *VIII. viii. Great-grandson of the preceding. Man of letters. At one period living much at the Burgundian court; at another on his estate of Taionnacus near Autun. It seems best to follow the Benedictine Histoire littéraire de la France, ii, p. 651, in regarding this personage as distinct from Syagrius, son of Aegidius of Soissons, defeated by Clovis in 486. Sirmond and others, however, regard V. v. at least, if not both letters, as written to that Syagrius. The objection to this view is that the ruler of Soissons would hardly have been able to live among Burgundians or in a country-house so far away from his proper sphere of interest.

Symmachus Quintus Aurelius. I. i. i; II. x. 5; cf. VIII. x. i. Flourished in the second half of the fourth century. Consul 391. Famous as an orator, though most of his speeches are lost. His Letters survive in ten books, and are written in a style which compared with that of Sidonius is simple and |clxxxi direct. The best known is that relating to the proposed restoration of the altar of Victory in the Senate. Cf. Carm. ix. 304.

*Tetradius. *III. x. Friend. A jurisconsult of Arles. Cf. Carm. xxiv. 80-3; Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 577-8.

*Thaumastus. *I. vii; I. vii. 4; V. vi. i. Friend. Brother of Apollinaris. Associated with Tonantius Ferreolus in the impeachment of Arvandus. Cf. Carm. xxiv. 85.

Theodoric II (Theudericus). I. ii. i; II. i. 3. King of the Visigoths (453-66). Son of the Theodoric who fell in the battle of Maurica. Succeeded in 453 after the assassination of his brother Thorismond. Supported the election of Avitus as emperor, having been acquainted with him in former years, and on his deposition and death opposed Majorian, by whom he was defeated before Arles. Afterwards once more reconciled to the Empire, but assassinated by his brother Euric in 466. Cf. Carm. vii. 262, &c.; and see Introduction, p. xvi.

Theodorus. III. x. i. Vir clarissimus. Introduced by Sidonius to the jurisconsult Tetradius.

*Theoplastus. *VI.v. Bishop of Geneva (?). (Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaiix, i, p. 227.)

Thorismond (Thorismodus). VII. xii. 3. King of the Visigoths. Son of Theodoric I, who died in the great battle of Maurica, and brother of Theodoric II, by whom he was assassinated in 453. Besieged Arles soon after the defeat of Attila, but was induced to withdraw through the practical diplomacy of Tonantius Ferreolus (q. v.).

*Tonantius Ferreolus. *VII. xii. i; I. vii. 4; II. ix. i. Grandson of the Consul Afranius Syagrius, and through his •mother, Papianilla, connected with the Aviti. An important Gallo-Roman noble, son of a Prefect of the Gauls, himself three times Prefect, and Patrician. With Avitus, he was instrumental in arranging the co-operation of the Visigoths with the Romans, which resulted in the defeat of Attila at Maurica by Aëtius. He was gifted with diplomatic powers which enabled him to save the town of Arles when besieged by the new Visigothic king Thorismond, at the trifling cost of a dinner (VII. xii), but his qualities as a strong and just |clxxxii administrator led to his selection, after his official career, as the principal accuser of Arvandus (I. vii). His tastes were cultivated; cf. the description which Sidonius gives of his country-house Prusianum (II. ix). Born about 420, he died about 485, and was thus a lifelong contemporary of his friend Sidonius. Cf. Carm. xxiv, 1. 36; Hist. Hit. de la France, iii, p. 540.

*Tonantius. *IX. xiii; IX. xv. Son of Tonantius Ferreolus. Cf. Carm. xxiv. 34.

*Trygetius. *VIII. xii. According to Sirmond, the same Trygetius sent on an embassy to Attila with St. Leo and Avienus. At the time of Sidonius' visit to his friends at Bordeaux, Trygetius was living at his house at Bazas. Cf. Chaix, ii, pp. 225-6.

*Turnus. *IV. xxiv. Friend. Son of Turpio.

Turpio. IV. xxiv. Friend; of tribunician rank. On his death-bed requested Sidonius to help his family in the matter of a debt to Maximus. See Turnus.

Valerianus, Priscus. V. x. 2. Prefect of Gaul, and relative of the Emperor Avitus. Father-in-law of Pragmatius. Consulted by Sidonius on the merits of his Panegyric of Avitus. Cf. Carm. viii. See also Hist. litt. de la France, ii, p. 360; Chaix, ii, p. 183.

*Vectius (Vettius). *IV. xiii; IV. ix. i. Friend. A noble living in the world, but practising austerities in secret. His home was near Chanteile in the Bourbonnais. (Chaix, ii, p. 239.)

Victorius. VII. xvii. i. Cf. IV. x. 2. Appointed Count of Auvergne by Euric, after he obtained possession of that country in 475. Probably the patronus of IV. x. 2. Gregory of Tours, who describes him as duke, gives him a much worse character than Sidonius (Hist. Franc. II. xx. and De gloria Confessorum, c. xxxiii).

Victorius. V. xxi. Uncle of Sacerdos and Justin. Sirmond thinks it probable that the person to whom this letter is addressed is Victorius of Aquitaine, who in 457 under the Consulate of Constantine and Rufus composed the Paschal Cycle, and had some repute as a poet (cf. V. x). His |clxxxiii home was among the hills of the Gabalitani, now the district of La Lozère. (Hist. litt. de la France, ii, pp. 419, 424.) The poet and the author of the Cycle are distinguished.

*Vincentius. *I. vii. Friend.

Vindicius. V. i. 2; VII. iv. i. Friend. A deacon of Auvergne, who assisted Sidonius in his literary work.

*Volusianus. *VII. xvii; IV. xviii. 2. Intimate friend. At Sidonius' request he assisted with advice and support Auxanius (q. v.), successor of St. Abraham, as abbot of the monastery of St. Cirgnes, near Clermont. On the death of Perpetuus he became bishop of Tours. (Chaix, ii, pp. 222, 224.)

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